Instrument Landing System

Instrument landing system – ILS is the primary system for a precision approach in terms of categories I.-III.-A. In the chapter of Analysis are the basic aviation flight categories defined, plus a short description of the system components and their location near the runway. In the next chapter named Ground equipment, are further information about the localizer and glide slope transmitter with a graphical sample of their radiation patterns, plus pictures of real antennas situated near an airport. The chapter Onboard equipment includes details of the localizer receiver as well as the glide slope receiver, and also a description of individual positions of the aircraft towards the course and glide slope. Illustrative pictures describe the momentary position of the aircraft and the response of the onboard ILS indicator. The last chapter, Marker beacons, deals mostly with onboard equipment, specifically with the optic-acoustic separation of individual approach zones.

ILS approach tutorial

Try our ILS tutorial animation that illustrates and describes how are ILS navigation signals displayed on board of an aircraft in various positions that may occur during a safe approach for landing.
Screenshot of the ILS tutorial animation

ILS website in the Slovak language

The entire website dedicated to the description of ILS systems can be viewed in the Slovak language. (including landing approach tutorial animation)
Screenshot of the website dedicated to the description of ILS in the Slovak language.

Microwave Landing System

The Microwave Landing System – MLS is a system of precision approach for landing by instruments and constitutes a kind of an alternative to the ILS system. It provides information about the azimuth, the optimal angle of descent and distance, as well as data about the reverse course in case of an unsuccessful approach. It has several advantages compared to the ILS, for example a greater number of possible executed approaches, a more compact ground equipment, and a potential to use more complicated approach trajectories. However for certain reasons, in particular the advancement of the GPS satelite navigation, was the installation of new devices halted and finally in 1994 completely canceled by the FAA organization. On european airports we can rather seldom come across an MLS.